Friday, January 14, 2011

What is the Kernel

What is the Kernel 
The services provided by the operating system are infecting provided by the Kernel. The Kernel performs various operations and acts as a user interface. The services provided by the Kernel are given below.
1.     It controls the fact and state of various processes such as their creation, termination and suspension.
2.     The Kernel allocates main memory for an executing process. The Kernel allows the e processes o share portions of their address space. It keeps the private space of process. However, if the free memory is low with the system, then the Kernel frees out some memory by writing a processes o the secondary memory. In case he Kernel writes all the processes to the secondary memory, it is called a swapping system. However, if only the pages of memory are written onto the secondary memory, then it is called the paging system.
3.     The Kernel schedules processes for execution on the CPU. The time sharing concept allows the processes to share the CPU. When the time of a process has finished, the processes to share the CPU. When the time of process has finished, the Kernel suspends it and puts some other ready process for execution in the CPU. It is again the work of the Kernel to reschedule the suspended process.
4.     The Kernel permits different processes to make use of the peripheral devices such as terminals, tape drives, disk drives and network devices as and when requested.
The services provided by the Kernel are absolutely transparent to the user. For instance, he Kernel formats the data present in a file for internal storage. However, it hides the internal format from user processes. Similarly, it makes a distinction between the regular file or a device but hides the distinction from user processes. Finally, the Kernel provided he services so that the user level processes can support the services they must provide. For instance, the Kernel provides the services that the shell requires to act as a command interpreter. Therefore, the Kernel allows the shell o read terminal input, to create pipes and redirect I/O. The computer users can also create private versions of the shell so that they can create an environment according to their own requirement without disturbing the other users.

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